- 25M Mains Marine Shore power Hook-Up 230V
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It, too, is a "free floating" system in which nothing is ever grounded to any metallic part of the vessel, most especially not the bonding system. Just like a car sitting on rubber tires, completely insulated from earth potential, the battery itself provides the negative potential. The bonding system, also green wire, has nothing to do with electrical systems.
Underwater metals are simply wired together to equalize differences in potential of different kinds of metal. Nothing should ever be grounded to the bonding system. Unfortunately, some people don't understand this and use it to ground electrical equipment, occasionally with disastrous results. Bonding Systems Bonding simply means wiring all the boats underwater metals together. This is done because of the galvanism caused by the different metals. By wiring them together, the differing potentials are equalized. In other words, bonding lessens the effect of small amounts of current.
On the other hand, it also spreads it around to all underwater metals so that higher currents end up damaging everything. Bonding systems use wire and ordinary crimped ring terminals. After a while these get wet and corroded. Electricity doesn't flow very well through corroded metal, so your bonding system after a while stops working.
To maintain it, simply cut off the old terminals and install new ones. Do you have wires attached to sea cocks with hose clamps? This is putting stainless and copper together, which are galvanically incompatible and it won't work. Nowadays, with copper based paints, a lot. If, the next time your boat is hauled and you see large ugly burn patterns around all your underwater metals, you got a stray current problem. Copper-based bottom paints react severely to stray current, and serves as a great indicator.
Sort of litmus paper for electrical problems. Of course, the common wisdom is that the stray current "is from the marina. Don't bet on it.
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Most stray current problems are sourced on the boat in which they appear. Otherwise, everybody in the marina would have the same problem. Electrolysis and Galvanism Electrolysis is a word that is badly abused by boaters who don't really know what it means, so let me correct this right now. First, understand that all boats have an electrical potential. That's because of all the different metals on the boat which, themselves have differing electrical potentials.
This is exactly the same principle that makes a dry cell battery generate electricity. This electrical potential is called galvanism and is the reason why we put zincs on boats. Electrolysis is stray current escaping from the system and is most damaging. It is an abnormal condition. When this happens, it will eat up the zincs in no time, usually leaving that metal looking bright and shiny. I spent two years putting a meter on every boat that was hauled for survey. Zincs will erode rapidly and underwater metals begin to be affected.
These devices are exposed to water and over time suffer from corrosion and general wear.
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High resistance caused by corroded, bent or worn connectors results in high resistance which causes overheating, which further amplifies the power drop. This not only creates conditions for a potential fire, but causes electrical equipment to work harder, resulting in reduced life span of equipment. You can perform a very simple check just by placing your hand on the shore cord near the connection to determine if it is heating up.
Obviously, this should be done while you have a lot of equipment turned on. If it's anything but slightly warm, not more than degrees, suspect a problem. Shore power connectors should be dismantled at least once per year, cleaned and repaired as necessary.
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Most of these connectors have replaceable parts. If you drop your shorepower connector in the water, you must take it apart, clean and dry it. Otherwise, expect it to burn up. We recommend that you buy only the highest quality power cords, as these will last longer and have the advantage of replaceable connector parts. Cheap connectors usually can't be taken apart. We also advise against ever using the three-pronger household type adapters as this type of connector is highly unreliable and prone to causing system faults and fires. Only the twist-lock type connector is suitable. If you are not turning off the dock breaker before disconnecting the power cord, start doing it now.
Not only do you risk getting electrocuted, but disconnecting an energized connector damages the contacts. Also consider what happens if you drop the energized cord in the drink!http://woodweddingsigns.com/60-magasin-azithromycin.php
25M Mains Marine Shore power Hook-Up 230V
Since you have three terminals on a shore connection, wrong polarity can mean that any of these wires are in the wrong position. Not only should you pay attention to the polarity indicator on your boat, we recommend that you keep a plug in polarity indicator aboard and use it every time you hook up to shore power at a different location. Reverse polarity is not only an electrocution hazard, but can also damage electrical equipment. It is most often found with the three prong spade connectors household type , but occasionally twist lock connectors as well, particularly in marinas with dilapidated equipment.
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Never trust the power supply at strange docks, but always check the polarity. When hooking up to strange docks, always check your volt meters to make sure you have adequate voltage. Low voltage is very damaging to electrical equipment. Turn on the stove or water heater and watch what happens to the meter. They do not; they only protect the dock wiring. Your main circuit breaker protects your boat's systems. But what about that section of wiring and connectors between your main panel and the dock breaker? Well, the fact is that it is unprotected.
Check out all the top end boats and you will find that they have circuit protection located directly at the shore connectors. Which is why we recommend that you should too. Having slow blow cartridge fuses installed directly at the connectors can go a long way toward preventing fires and burned up shore cords, particularly if you are a traveler and frequently rely on uncertain power supplies. Only gasketed, water proof cartridge holders should be used. Circuit Breakers Circuit breakers wear out, and when they do they work less well, or not at all.
It also damages breakers when you shut off equipment via the breaker. This causes arcing at the contact points which damages the points. When connecting and disconnecting shore power, you should always turn OFF equipment at the appropriate switch on the equipment. Then shut the main breaker off. Do not ever simply throw the main breaker off to shut down equipment that is operating. The circuit breaker arcs and damages it. Also be aware that any equipment run by a motor, such as air conditioning and refrigeration equipment, start up with an initially much higher amperage than the normal running amperage.
An air conditioner that runs at 14 amps may have a start up amperage of 20 amps, so that if you just go and turn all the equipment on at once, it overloads the system. Then the circuit breaker gets hot and won't stay engaged until it cools down. Ergo, start up heavy equipment one item at a time, allowing it time to cycle into its normal operating voltage before turning something else on. For example, don't turn the AC, refrigerator and icemaker all on at once and not expect the breaker to pop. Breakers that pop frequently are signaling that there is a problem, which could either be the breaker, or something in the circuit.
Yet most people will keep on attempting to make the breaker engage. This can be dangerous because you may cause the contact points of the breaker to fuse together from arcing, in which case it will never trip again. The above photo shows what can happen when you do this.
You must allow it to cool down. If you are experiencing chronic problems with circuit breakers popping, first check how much current draw is involved. A single 30 amp circuit is not much when you're running things like air conditioners, water heaters and battery chargers. One very simple way to check whether you're dealing with an overload problem is to add up the amperage draw of each piece of equipment. List both the start up and run amperages.
By making a list of the total power demand, you'll get a good idea of what you can and cannot operate simultaneously, particularly when starting the equipment. If you have an ammeter on your panel, check it against the amperage tally you made. Turn the equipment off and, after it is cool, reengage the breaker. Now turn the equipment back on. Place your finger on the front of the breaker and note its temperature. If it does not heat back up again, then the problem was probably a start-up overload.
If the temperature rises again, there is a fault in the circuit or the breaker. In reality, there's little chance of being electrocuted inside a boat because you are not grounded within the boat. A greater risk is from service outlets being located in places that get wet, such as below leaking windows, hatches or close to doors. Three pronged plugs are prone to shorting across the terminals when wet, so having all your service outlets changed to GFCI's is a good idea.
Use only the highest quality devices from a reliable manufacturer like GE, and not the el cheapos from the local discount store. They aren't worth having. Service outlets located anywhere on the exterior of the vessel are an invitation to trouble for reasons that should be obvious.
The same advice about jury-rigging wiring applies to DC systems as well AC systems. While you're not going to create an electrocution hazard, it is very easy to take a faultless system and create faults in it. A typical problem starts like this: The owner wants to add a new piece of equipment, but the electric panel is way over there, and the place he wants to install the equipment is way over here.
Besides, there are no extra breakers in the panel, and no space in the panel to add another one. To make matters worse, the panel is located in such a way that he couldn't string new wires into it even if he wanted to. So what he does is to find a place where he can tap off an existing circuit, and maybe adds an in-line fuse, stringing wires all over the place in the process.
Or maybe he is replacing a piece of equipment that has a faulty circuit, but instead of trying to locate the fault, he just clips off the old wires and strings new ones. This happens a lot, and by the time the boat has a few years on it, it's got cut wires all over the place, many of which are still hot! In many cases, he will just go and take new leads off the batteries, bypassing the panel altogether.
Now when he goes to turn off the main power supply, all that new stuff added remains energized. In addition to which in-line fuses have also been added all over the place, so when something craps out he's got to go tearing through the boat to find that hidden fuse. If you have electrical problems and your system looks something like this, then you needn't look much farther for the source of the problem Not every electrical system is going to be this neat, but this is the way it should be.
The worst of the problems with DC system add-ons comes with improperly installed wiring and the use of wire splices of all sorts. Typical of these are the use of electrical taped connections which, when the tape gets warm as in the engine room the tape glue gets soft and the tape falls off. Or the use of wire nuts or crimped butt connectors in locations that get wet.
Wire nuts those twist-on cones are not approved for marine use. When connections get wet, the wire corrodes, creates high resistance, usually resulting in equipment damage or failure for reasons which the owner will never discover. He'll think just that damned lousy piece of equipment crapped out, when in fact the lousy wiring job is the culprit. After the boat is built, there's no convenient way to route new wiring.
But we need to understand that systems on boats are subject to high G-forces due to pounding, rolling and vibration. Connections get stressed and wires rub and chafe against abrasive or sharp objects. It doesn't take much damage to wire insulation before you have a condition where stray current may develop. And the chance of finding a little bit of damage on one wire is about nil. Must be routed in a suitable, dry area and be well secured. Should not be laying in bilge or in areas that get wet. Must not be routed with pipes or hoses of any kind, and not be in contact with fuel tanks or fuel lines.
Splicing circuits should be avoided. If splicing is necessary, it should employ a proper terminal block, and not butt connectors see above photo.
Every splice in a circuit creates additional resistance, and the potential for the connection to come apart. Taped connections and wire nuts should not be used. Wiring must be firmly secured and in locations where it won't get damaged. Should not be dangling or strung across open spaces. Use only plastic, not metal, clips to secure the wiring. Must have chafing protection or conduit at vibration points around machinery. Must not be in contact with, or proximity to machinery exhaust systems. Wiring should be neat.
A boat full of tangled wiring demonstrates unprofessionalism and the inability to fix something that goes wrong. An electrician can't trace a plate of spaghetti, and when something does go wrong, the cost of fixing it goes way up. First of all, these devices trap water and corrode internally. Secondly, you end up with two more splices in a wire circuit that shouldn't have any.
Third, you usually forget where they're located, and if you've got ten of them on your boat. Jury-rigged systems are just that; a temporary, unreliable system. A boat full of in-line fuses is a boat full of short cuts and amateur installations. Batteries Batteries are a constant source of aggravation to many boat owners, almost always for reasons that are preventable.
Marine & Shipboard Wire & Cable | IEWC
As a general rule, batteries perform consistent with the price you pay for them. We can design systems that go from the battery size and type to the charging systems. Battery Charge system from alternators with smart regulators to wind and solar systems. Each system should be monitored with monitors that can read and keep track of battery discharge and charges, showing you the actual percent of battery usage.
We also specialize in converting electrical systems to use European systems or European systems to American systems. I just wanted you to know that we hooked up to 50hz v power yesterday for the first time.
TARA is operating just like we planned. I had an electrician on board to test each stage of the turn-on process and we added things breaker by breaker with a toast towards you each time the device worked properly. He said that you really deserved a compliment for the 7-pole switch design because he had never seen a boat that was so versatile.
Thank you so much for putting in all of the effort to computerize the drawing of the 7-pole switch. We have referred to it often. The D is a new direct-drive wind generator, designed for a variety of marine, rooftop or terrestrial applications.