The almost complete 78 rpm record dating guide ii

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Catalog Record: The almost complete 78 rpm record dating | Hathi Trust Digital Library

Home All editions This edition , English, Book edition: The almost complete 78 rpm record dating guide: Published Huntington Beach, Calif. Yesterday Once Again, , c Language English View all editions Prev Next edition 1 of 2. Check copyright status Cite this Title The almost complete 78 rpm record dating guide: Author Barr, Steven C. Physical Description xviii, p. Subjects Sound recordings -- Collectors and collecting.

Sound recording industry -- History. Sound recordings -- Dating. Language English Dewey Number Most drew from U. A lower-priced label jnessed by Compo Pressed by Compo Unlike Brunswick, Compo Melotones did not duplicate U. After ARC was dropped, the label drew from Decca in a short-lived popular and a longer-lived 45 X 0 country series. As Lucky Strike above. It is not known if these were store labels. One of the line of lower-jniced labels along with Crown and, later, Melotone.

In , as CcHnpo took over the label The Starr name was added see Gennett above , gradually becoming more jn'orninent Compo dropped the G enn ett connection in , but continued the label drawing from Plaza and other sources. Even the dLv records manufactured by Edison are so substantially different from the usual 78 rpm records as to barely merit discussion and coverage herein. Toward the end of the first decade of the twentieth century, it became obvious that the cylinder record cedud not hold its own against the popular disc record. Many firms were phasing out cylinder records, or about to.

However, it appeared that some type of dLx record would be necessary to compete in the industry, and the firm was experimenting Mdth one. Many popular entertainers, as well, had signed exclusive contracts with other record firms. Finally, the Ediwn name no Itmger carried the clout it once did as the market for popular records was composed primarily of the younger gcncratioD. The sales of Diamond discs dropped off each year from the be ginning of the decade.

Edison tried experimenting with electrical recmding, which was not used by the firm until , long after the competition, but nothing was of any avaiL The heavy, awkward Edison record were loooked upon as old-fashicmed in a decade in which eve r y thing had to be brand new, and they simply did not selL Edison gamely hung on to the Diamond Disc and the Blue Amberol cylinder, continuing both for the life of the company, but the firm finally realized that they had to have a line of ordinary records, and the "Needle Cut" Edisons were announced to the trade in the fall of Unfortunately, this was not a good time for the record busLuess, and after an initial flurry of interest the new records failed to sell also.

This tried to avoid patent infringement by using an angled cut which supposedly allowed it to play equally well ot poorly on both lateral and vertical machines. They also produced a line of 7-inch records containing longer versions of the same material These sold reasonably well considering their unusual size, judging from their availability today.

By they had started pressing 9-inch, almost full length recordings; by the next year these had been supplanted by regular Idinch discs. The 7-inch records lost the Emerson name at the end of , but were pressed through under the Melodise name. Throughout and the firm proved successful with a tendency to be more adventurous in hiring talent, so that a number of. While these sold well competition from other companies entering the low-price field limited sales, and, as weU, customers stopped buying the more expensive records, discovering the same material to be available for less money.

As a rrault, Emerson went into receivership and was reorganized in mid Crey CuU 2 Uid numerous smalle r labels depended on the supply of material from Emerson, including Brides written by staff composers to avrid royalty payments. When appearing on other labels, these bore control numbers in a , later 31 X 0 series.

In , the firm entered the radio industry, and became the Emerson Radio Corporation. This proved to be so sucessful and, in fact, is still in operation today, using the same trade mark! They were late in starting to record electrically, however, and their main customer for matrices. Grey Gull, started their own recording operatiem. They began recording electrically in late , having already! The first Emerson firm pressed the labels detailed on the frilowing page; there may have been others.

The Emsrson firm advertised the capability of making personal records, and although no records have been seen by the author that can be specifically identified as such, they may exist. The second, incarnation of Emerson seems to have had no subsidiary labels, although they leased matrices extensively. The later firm, particularly after its acquisition by the Scranton Button Company, supplied matrices to so many independent labels that it is impossible to determine which might actually be subsidiary labels.

Most are listed below, each under its own name. This label appears to have been pressed by Emerson for the Baldwin f'ianu Company, who applied for the name as a trade mark. There were both 9 and lO-inch L'wues, with the former starting in late , being supplanted by the latter the next year. As noted above, this was an extension of the 7-inch Emerson se. This label was pressed by Emerson for the Larkin Company, a merchandising firm in Buffalo, New York, Both 9 and inch pressings were issued, although there does not apf ear to have be.

The most valuable 78 rpm record of the collection

It was pressed from early until early No other labek have been identified as Emerson subsidiary or client labek at thk time, although they may quite possibly exist see the comments above. Nutmeg sold between the two labek. Dandy, issued , bore no credits. Electric Recording Studios which weren't electrii! The records were issued under the Starr name for the first year, imt the name was changed to Cennett, after the family who ojierated the piano firm.

Cennett also pressed the rare. The flagship Cennett label wa. This was the lower-pricexl Une of records pressed by Cennett, as noted. The nanic aetptired by Dsexa. VII Cennett issue- used the 1. AU ased sides which appeared on Cennett in the r;u-lier fieri-vd or Chanipi. The Labels listed below are some of the many client labels pressed by the Cennett firm: This label was pressed for a client during , with less than a hundred ever appearing. The credits include six companies, none of whose names indicate any connection with the record indastry.

Some issues on this label were pressed by Cennett, others by Paramount q. All material also appeared on Cennett Q R S: Cennett pressed records fm: A label not related to Cennett also bears the name q. Cennett also recorded and pressed a number of other labels including ail of the Sears and Roebuck labels q. Smne used Cennett materiaL while others used sides recorded for the label in question. All not listed above will be found under their own names.

As weR Cennett pressed a series of "personal" ot "special" records for various individuals and groups; some labels credited Cennett, while others appeared under various label identities. There are even examples known of a series of music educatiem reands recorded ffu a publisher by Cennett, but pressed by Gedumbia! The Starr Piano Company, the original parent company of Cennett, also operated a Canadian subsidiary. The Canadian branch imported recends from until , when the began an arrangement with the Compo Company to press rectuds in Canada.

A more detailed survey was written by this authw and appeared in New Amberola Graphic magazine, of which back issues are available at this writing. The firm appears to have entered the. These were pnefixed with an "11" to indicate the Uill-and-dale, as vertical cutting was also known, method of recording. The L and L series continued after the prefix was dropped. To further confuse things, some Grey Gull-pres. They quickly dropped in both quality and price, however, and became very inexpensive land of appropriate quality by S.

They did their own recording, possibly in Boston, from through , and continued recording in New York possibly done for them by NYRL into Frmn this point until they drew almost entirely on the output of Emerson, who leased sides extensively under series control numbers during this period. About , they seem to have set up an electrical recording facility, which produced almost all of the material issimd thereafter, with a very few Emerson sides used.

Grey Gull abo had musicians and songwriters create songs solely for the Bsides of their issues to save the few dollars due in composer royalties! In and they used name bands, but records still sold poorly, especially after the depression hit The company seems to have given up around Although it has not been factually verified, the labels and catalog seem to have been acquired by the firm which manufactured the L. Crown reewds from late onward.

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Brian Rust comments in his "American Record Label Book" that the remnants of the Grey Gull issues were apparently dumped in England, where they were sohl off cheaply. Woolworth who sold both Crown and Madison and the American Reoml Corporation, many of whose house artists appear on early Crown issues remains to be established, the various labels pressed by Grey GuU are noted below; they also pressed some issues of Oriole ic.

This is the first and primary subsidiary lab el pressed by Grey GuU, perhaps as a means to enter the lower-pioe field. It a qiears just as do Grey GuU-[Hessed Orioles, and uses the sam e orange label background on the very first issues. The first labels designate them. Radiex used Grey GuU numbers, and the label continues to the end of the firm. If so, it is almost certainly a client label Grey Gull ilobe.

Some run concurrently with Grey Gull numbers, with a difference; some appear to use an independent numbering system, and some bear no catalog numbers at all It is not yet known if these are in any way relatexi to the Later Jewel label pressed by Plaza. The name would seem to indicate a client label All use Grey Gull numbers.

This quite rare label appears to have been pressed for a short period in This label ran from or to The label is also one of the few Grey Gull labels to enjoy the distinction of its own printed sleeve Van Dyke and Radiex being the others] although it does not give any credits.


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All use Grey Gull numbering. It used Grey Gull numbers with a 7, later an 8, attached as a prefix; it also used Madison and Sunrise numbers on at least some issues, as well as the late series. The following label does not relate to any of the above: This is the most unusual of the Grey Gull labels. It first appears aroimd , with a series for pop material and a for folk and standard recordings. It also shared an , Later 81 X series with at least some other Grey Gull labels; these paired non-royalty B. Interestingly enough, it also used matrices in a series which were recorded for Madison only - although similar to correspon ding Grey Gull sides, they are not identical During this period, regular Grey Gull sidses were used as well This series was dro q ed in - for a short period thereafter, from about to the Ts were not used on Grey Gull the records correspond to Grey GuU dance sides, with a different credit or none at aU.

In late , a scries appears, containing all types of material; after about 50 issues, this loses one zero later issues of earlier material have the zero dropped as well to become a series, which reaches and jump to There are other series known: Other labels pressed by Grey Gull include the following: Other labels may have been pressed and at least two private rr,cordings are known.

Like Gennett, the company was based in the midwest and recorded there; as weU, Paramount entered the race market early, and actively marketed records to Blacks from to its demise in This meant that many blues artists and jazz performers appear first or only on the Paramount labeL Collectors can thank Max Vreedc for untangling the Paramount history and that of the related companies and labels. The story starts around The Wisconsin Chair Company, a furniture manufacturer located in Port Washington, Wisconsin, near Milwaukee, had been building phonograph cabinets for other manufacturers, and decided to enter the phonograph business with a line of machines and records.

They established a subsidiary company. The first records were 9-inch verical cut discs which appeared under the Paramount and Puritan names. These were quickly supplanted by inch vertical-cut re. At some point, pcwsibly from the beginning, they contacted with the Bridgeport Die and Machine Company to do the actual pressing of records, early in , this firm decided to enter the record basiness on their own, ami a curioas arrangement seems to have been made. The arrangement was this: NYKL, on the other han d, pressed very few other labels; all that are known are Claxtonola, which also drew from Gennett, Blue Bird, pressed for a very short time for a Los Angeles phonograph manufacturer.

AU except Silvertone either used Paramount numbers or were numbered concurrently. Their aggressive marketing of race records by mail order, to customers who often had no access to stores selling records, had proven successfuL but as the depression deepened their clientele had no money to spend on luxuries such as records. Their business dwindled, and the firm was finally acquired by the then-struggling Gennett in late , with their last K series blues issues being among the most sought-after records known. The individual labels are detailed on the next page.

It ran until , but after issued mainly race records. NYRL also pressed a few client labels, detailed below: NYRL pressed this label ; later issues were pressed by Gennett q. Records or sleeves show no information as to their source. It seems to have been the primarv label for the comany.

In , Gurl Undstrom, a German resident, acquired a n umb er of record companies based in that country but operating throughout the world, amtrolling labels such as Odeon, Favorite. He had operations in the United States apparently only as an importer, which were run by Otto Heinemann under the latter's own name. In , Heinemann started noduction of records in a vertical-cut format, using his initials tu suggest the name for the new Okeh label When the U. Records were issued on both the Okeh and Odeon labels, with the latter consisting of imported European sides drawn from the Lindstrom labels and domestically recorded ethnic materiaL except for shortdived ventures as a popular domestic label in and again in see below.

This pcdicy was dropped after the sale of the Columbia firm in In additiem to the line of ethnic records on the Odeon labeL another successful sideline of Okeh was their line, of race records. When Columbia acquired Okeh, they continued the successful race and country lines and recording popular material as weU, even though they were also doing both for their own main label The scarcity of Columbia-pressed Okeh pop reonds indicate they did not sell especially well but race and country record did- At the end of , Okeh was to some extent integrated with the Harmony group of labels, using many of these sides.

When the new management dropped the cheaper labds in , Okeh was retained, but cmly about two dozen items appeared on the bbel mostly reissues, until the last Okeh appeared in the fall of S. This was not the end of the label however; it would be revived not once but twice more land on LP much later as weU! In the fall of , the Vocalion label was suddenly replaced by a new Okeh label which continued the numbering system and the catalog numbers of records in the Vocalion catalog. The first two items are records which used Okeh materiaL and are suspected of being manufactured by okeh well, although this is not verified The following two are those labels which were part of the lindstrom group world-wide, although pressed by Okeh in the 1.

The later issues were pressed by the Compo Ctunpany q. Phonola and most other Compo issues duplicate Okeh catalog numbers although Apex deviates later. Phonola pressed both laterally and vertically cut Okeh sides. The Odeon label first ajqieared in , although not in the In that year the International Talking Ma chine Company, a German firm, introduced a line of records under the Odeon name.

They were most notable because they were the first double. Okeh issued Lindstrom- recorded ethnic material tm the label, excepting a brief domestic venture in , through In , a group of strange recordings appeared under the name, with ONY- catalog numbers. They used some Okeh material and some sides recorded without vocals at Okeh sessions. Parlophones from this period carry a P. The most common Sears label is Silvertonc, but several others were sold. The Labels sold by Sears are listed below. They were sold in 7 and incJi sizes.

These are exceedingly scarce, being sold between cl and All are singleaided, and the labels from all sources are very similar, excepting credit typefaces. Columbia continued to press them, and Oxfords in the catalog acquired new labels. After a year, the label was revived; Sears turned to Federal for records. The first issues, with a silver-on-blue label Ixire Federal numbers; these were supplanted by the tan label series, numbered in a 20 X scries which paralleled with Federal with Federal numbers in the wax.

In , Federal was evidently acquired by Emerson. While Emerson continued to fuess Silvertones in the series, using their own and Plaza sides. These were numbered in many series, sometimes grouped by manufacturer, sometimes not, with some Cennett pressing? In some cases, the same record came from different. This label was first sold by Sears in see Olympic. It bears no reference to Sears most Supertemes do not but the label is similar to later issues known to be Sears issues.

This is a challenge to discographers! Those below were pressed by Cennett; numbers run con-secutively, or mostly so, but all issues are pseudonymous. Highe r n umb ers were pressed by Plaza, with blocks of numbers iLsed in a random fashion. They can be dated tmly by their control numbers. Issues are again under pseudonyms, and most use the same identities as Mole and Jewel, often paired differently.


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It continued until , when wartime shortages made custom pressing impossible, and used one consecutive numbering series. The following number nequence appeared on the Labels of Arto rec- ordLs. The labels below used the sequence with different initial num- bers or prefixes: All show the number in the runout The following number sequence appeared on standard issues on the same labels, and in the same way: Bell started a new se- quence.

The num-bers appear to jump by each time 99 is reached, and some groups seem to be skipped. Numbers from this period may appear under the Label or in the run-out if they appear at aU. Bell records drew from their own recordings source un- known , Plaza and Em- erson. Until , al- most all matrices were suppressed; thereafter, Emerson matrices may show, either in full or the last three digits, in the run-out The last 50 OT so were nressed by Bennett who did not show matrix num- bers cm any of their pressings at the time.

Erom iennett, appear- ed on Apex only. Duplicates Okeh verti- cal series, appears on Phonola probably prior to Compo pressings. Those which do not do so show the Okeh numbers stamped in the run-out area. The late 40xx issues are from late NOTE: Compo may have pressed and Issued other Okeh series on Phonola or other labels. Early Cennett of Canada issues, and la- ter issues using Rritish materiaL bore numbers identical to their U. This practice stopped at c. Erom Plaza, appeared on: French 12" records on iennett 4x Details unknown, if i; wa.

Either is a possibility, see next coliunn. Continuation of From Compo, Plaza, unknown U. May continue, date bv numbers. As , on Lucky Strike E28 26 X 0 number in run- All known issues 2? Champion Decca pressings , used on Melotone. From Plaza, on Apex: From Decca, occasion- ally others Melotonek ? This sequence does not duplicate the similar Decca-issued Champion country series, unlike the series. To 91 XX series.

Catalog Record: The almost complete 78 rpm record dating guide : II | Hathi Trust Digital Library

As late no PatheT used as above: Sources as 83 XK , iss- ues as Compo also pressed Canadian Decca q. It might be noted as weU that the original Compo recording led- gers are in the collection of the National Library in Ottawa, Canada and it is hoped this data can be included in future supplements to or ed- itions of the Cnide.

These appear on the records as follows: If shown, handwritten in run-out area. One such issue, from Harmony sides, is known although how is not known! The original stampers were used. Most have matrices faintly handuTitten in the run-out area. Some few do not show the numbers, particularly after , or show them partially ob- scured by the label this is noted on early Deccas as well.

Compo issued six rec- ords from pirated 4 ic- tor sides see the his- torical section. The Victor issue numbers can be seen faintly where thev were j removed from the stampers. They are handwritten in the run-out area. Edison cylinders have been listed in several diff- erent books and maga- zines. Both Edison Diamond Discs and the short- lived "Needle Cut" lateral records used a number of series for various types of material Only the D iam ond Disc popular series is listed below.

The following are the first and last issues in each series used Standard: The , and ? Matrices appeared both at the bottom of the label and handwritten in the run-out area. Vertical matrix Hum- bers 9exact for January and estimated for June except for and Lateral numbers are exact Vertical-cut Diamond Disc matrices: See section 4 9-inch: Date unlisted series by matrix number. There was also a country series which paralleled the Bell IKX series.

Custom pressings app- ear on New York and other labels, as well as records credited only to the Consolidated Re- cord Company. The abote series was used on Grey Gull and many min or labels. Earber issues aj peared under the Starr name. The above series was replaced by the one listed below; the two overlapped for a short time, with the above series used for various special items. Gennett also pressed a number of other series. All were short-lived and most date from If Gennett matrices are used, they can dated using those. Only one item is known from the ethnic?

Most from on show a number left Following arc known examples: As of this time no data is at hand for the vertical-cut matrix numliers. Last number not known. None arc known on regular issues. No other series were used by the company. The series seems to have originated as a standard series before gradually becoming a race-oriented series. LCK Series This series has been reported but content and exact date are not currently known. The following couple Grey Gull B-sides Series Known through , all probably issued in early The author has not seen any items from the series. It may start at Most Madison issues used series listed lielow.

There is also an uu- knotvTi series. Grey GuU matrix numbers always appear in the run-out area, and almost always carry a letter take even if the orig- inal source used numbers as takes. The exact starting point of the first ser- ies is notknown. Many numlters appear to not have been used- 4? The first few itemss in the following series may appear as or numbers.

It was also u. Grey GuU drew exten- sively from other com- panies, particularly in the [teriod- Some used GG control numbers see above and others used the original matrix. NYRL; Provided a number of standard sides in the range, as weU as popular sides from to around Note that many of the popular sides nm very close to the Grey GuU control series at the higher end of the range.

Most Plaza sides use their original matrix n umb ers in the range. Some later issues are under GG control numbers. A few other issues are known under matrix series for various unid- entified laliels, also! The foUowing are control series, although they may function as matrix series for sides issued only on Madi- son: Much of the data below is thanhs to Max Vreede and his research. Paramount 3 X 00 Piuitan 4 X 0 ? Restarted for lateral-cut issues. Many of these labels issued only oer- tain items or ran: NOTEi The Broadway series aUuded to above is a very scarce early issue, not to be confused with the more common series detailed next column.

The last few are issued out of order, perhaps around mid 68 N. Broadway to are stan- dard issues, probably c, mid- Paramount 5 X Researcher Max Vreede notes the existence of this series; the three known issues date from and dupli- cate issues on the series. Most of the sides are European labels recordings. Paramount M Popular: Marsh in late A standard and popular series are known, all from mid Vertical-cut matrices up to may not run m sequence - as weU, the numbers were reused when the sides were cut laterally.

Some issues from show matrices in a series. The source is not known. RDM- series All known 3 r. No dates are takes except some very Note that on labels pres. Also see Guide section 3. Catalogs do not list i 0" Oxfords during this jieriod. The records carry their catalog numbers. These use he Columbia matrix num- bers as catalog num- liers. Include many liack catalog sides. Inso- far as these can be detailed, they are lis- ted in the following columns. Note that dating data is imprecise for many of the, series. All issues during this period were pressed by Columbia They dupli- cated the final Oxford list, including much back material IL a2a Drew as follows: They appear to S.

The exact Inst catalog. The only other laljei pres. The first of these appeared in , and all were forced out ot business under court decisions by These firms pressed both their own and client labels: This firm ojjerated from c. They seem to relate to the. Their records are easily recognized, using blue. This name appears on 7-inch records pressed experimentally by the American Grapho-phone Company in mid- The records can be identified by their relatively crude appearance and lack of any identifying features. Issues with the label below the jdaviny surface bear no identifying marks or n umb ers at aU, while those on which the label is Icvil ma.

The firm probably began in mid and ceased operation in Novemer. The latter label is a continuation of the former; the TalkdiPhone name may have been used in the interim, though this is not verifed The Leeds name apfiears on a line of very attractive records. The records are numbered in a sequence starting at At the end of this was supplanted by the Imperial label, credited to Leeds and CatUn. Pressed by Columbia during , these unusual flexible records use their own catalong and matrix series but Col umb ia materiaL REX: This label fits neatly between the era covered in this section and that covered in the next, and was the only independent record company between its beginning in and the rise of inde- pendent labels in This label was pressed for Hawthorne and Sheble by Columbia , but establishing this takes careful scrutiny.

It probably succeeded the American Record Company q. The earliest issues bore violet-on-white labels with credits rubber-stamped, but later issues used an attractive black labeL An early issue on a Clarion label drawing frmn these sides has been seen by the author, and other labels may well have been pressed using this source. No client labels known, but see Zon-O-Phone below. The first records under this label were. Universal firm to Victor; the Lattex maintained Universal as a separate operation, dis guising the relationship. The list above is by no means complete.

Most pre record companies operated on the edge of patent law and were being pursued in the courts by Columbia and Victor, so even contemporaiy journals give little data on the independent firms. F inall y, as most collectors know, very few records of any type have survived the near-century to today. In many cases, so few examples of a label are known that it is difficult to establish dates, numbering systems and other data for it Where projects are under way to collect information on these pioneer record labels, the author hereby requests that those with information on this all-but-undocumented area of discography please assist him in making this information available to collectors through the Guide.

A list of labels pressed is given for each group. Starts at 1 or ? Matrix numbers either duplicate the catalog n umb ers or are not shown on the records. Some Most International rec. In the show Columbia matri- cases where matrices ces. Also see Star next appear, they match the page. Imperial-era issues car- ry a matrix number in the run-out in reverse print ending in "IT; dates are unknown.

No exact dates are known. L And probaldy others. There was a inch series, but no data is known. Numbered in A series, no data known at this time. U nlike Victor, Zon Phone records bore matrix numbers in the run-out area, but not enough data is known to date the sequence. First number unknown but may continue pre- vious series. The numbers also ser- ved as the control numbers and appear under die label simi- larly to Columbia. As prices dropped and more compact machines became available, the phonograph changed from a luxury' to a standard home item; this was helped, also, by the dance craze that swept society during this period.

Nearly every home now had music. With increased phonograph sales went increased record sales, of course. This naturally indicated that more firms would enter the record business. Victor and Columbia appeared to have this field tied up with their patent holdings, and competition lessened further when Columbia quit pressing client labels in Around this time, some firms elected to get around this situation by issuing vertical-cut records not covered under these patents. Although such firms enjoyed some success, the small market for these nonstandard records became overcrowded, and the existence of several incompatible types of vertical recording added to the problems faced by these competitors.

In enrly , several of the larger independent labels elected to challenge the "giants" by marketing lateral-cut records which could be played on their machines. Victor was as always quick to hale the offenders into court, but having done. Within a few years vertical recording was a ttiing of the past except for a few special appUcations.

With phonograph and record sales at their highest point ever, numerous firms entered the record business, with varying degrees of success. In , new developments meant radio sets no longer needed batteries, making them more popular. By , most of the independent record companies had either folded or been merged into larger firms.

At the end of that year, the depression hit A couple of adventurous xim panics still tried to enter the record business, but did not last long. By only two record firms remained viable, and even RCA was cmisidering dropping record manufacture. Mail order catalogs no longer sold phonographs, and the record industry appeared to be going the way of the buggy whip industry.

No new firms would enter the business for a few years. The following section details the history of the smaller independent record labels issued during the period. Labels not covered here may be found elsewhere, are not covered, as noted: The major independent labels See section 2 preceding. These are the labels which lasted a number of years, issued a substantial amount of material and maintainexi full recording facilities, most pressed a number of subsidiary and client labels as well These are the records, other than major labels, most commonly found today.

Labels directly related to major or major independent labels See sections 1 and 2. These rei-ords were pressed by record companies for various special purposes. Since they were not issued by actual record firms, they are not "labels" as the Cnide concerns them. Some few of special interest are covered here, but the majority are not 4 Labels about which nothing is known except that an issue exists.

Most of these probably fall into the above category. Histories cannot be written without data! It was founded by Harry Pace along with noted music figure W. C Handy in mid Handy does not seem to have remained with the firm. BLlj-UlSC The entire output of this label and its companion Up-To-Date label comprised about twenty records all issued in December, These would simply be a curiosity for the label enthusiast, were it not for the artists recorded. Nothing is known of either label except for the issue date and catalog, including several items not yet found.

Two separate labels which may or may not have been related, used this name during the, early Crs. The first appeared in December, It used the "Jones" matrices - sides recorded by Earl Jones whose Standard Records firm recorded sides and sold them to numerous small labels during the period. These sides usually carried different matrix numbers for each Label using them, each using their own sequence; several have been verified as identical shies on different labels. Matrix numbers run from C slightly over a hundred numbers. The second Cardinal label appeared in ; it was pressed by Geimett from their catalog and uses catalog numbers in a.

It ran only a few months. For issues, mostly red-labelled, see Cardinal above. An early Qarion label related to Star c. This label was apparently sold by a New York phonograph firm from until , perhaps to accompany machines. All carry the same ornate script trade mark. See Columbia in section 1 who pressed both labels.

The almost complete 78 rpm record dating guide (II)

W Woolworth, who may have marketed Crown, and other retailers. The company shut down pressing operations in , and subsequent issues are pressed, but apparently not recorded, by RCA. See Okeh section 2 who may have manufactured these records. This Los Angeles-based label is one of the few based on the west coast. It issued records under its own name, recorded in its own facilities, but had no pressing operaduns, so that ioLLn records were pressed by Gennett and other eastm firms.

It ran from until c. These records were an unusual approach to selling records in a depresshtn economy. In early , the Durium comany announced a new record, pressed in a Durium plustie surface on one side of a paperboard disc. They sold for ten or fifteen cents at newsstands and similar venues. By , though records of any type and price were a luxury, and the IJ. Only the I talian subsidiary outlasted the depression, selling paper records into the ys and more usual records thereafter. The label started c. This label was apparently pressed for a New York Gty phonograph manufacturer. Two types are known.

The first use a blue label pasted onto Columbia records of the period, credited anonymously; these were apparently surplus records, suggesting an issue date of Issues aie known drawing from earlier Sdigit Olympic issues and later 4-digit ones - it is not knorni if the earber sides were reissued in The last issues are under Olympic catalog numbers. It is noted for its ornate and attractive label designs, and used a complex system of catalog numbers. I'he manufature is credited to the Lyraphone Company of America; the Lyxaphone name may be used on early issues. The firm lasted until mid and may be connected with Arto, who started at that time, also in New Jersey.

Many early labels, most notably Phantasie Concert, drew from Lyric. This was a Calif ornia firm which seems to have some connection with the west coast operations of Columbia records. They did not press regular commercial issues, but pressed radio transcriptions and a number of custom pressings from on. The name aslo appears on records pressed by Olympic for Ross stores.

There was also a line of 7-inch vertical-cut records sold under this name c. It drew from the "Jones" matrices, and used its own matrix numbers. Little more is known. This is another short-lived Label sold in , credited to a Brooklyn, New York firm. It lasted only a few months. The handful of items issued on the label seem to have been recorded locally, perhaps by the firm, and feature local Black performers. The source for pressing is not currently known, and the author has not seen an example.

This label, which in all probability was marketed with a phonograph under the same name, is credited to a Piqua, Ohio firm. It was pressed using "Jones" matrices carrying LjTic matrix numbers, around the beginning of Only a few were issued. Records under this name were pressed for a Detroit phonograph manufacturer. All carry the same ornate script trade mark The label is fairly scarce. Very little is known about this label, which ran from until at least This label was used in the U. The first was a line of B-inch vertical-cut records with etched "labels". These appeared in late and seem to have disappeared shortly thereafter.

They may or may not relate to similar issues in different sizes. The name also appears on a line of records pressed by Compo see section 2 for a London, Ontario firm. The records bear the former spelling, while the company credit uses the latter; both relate to the bird today known as "parakeet", which is pictured on the label The records are 7-inch vertically cut items, with etched "labels".

They date from late into , but were issued for only a short time. Noted singer Henry Burr was a part-owner of the firm. They probably relate to Angelophone, a line of simil ar records which carried a hymn on one side, usually sung by Burr, and a talk on the hymn on the other. These are known with both etched and paper labels, often pairing the two. They may relate to other small vertical-cut record lines. The label lasted into drawing from Olympic. The first issues, ju dging from the material used, date from about , drawing from the Gennett catalog and using their numbering.

The name reappears in on a line of records recorded and pressed by Gennett but not using material from the Gennett catalog; this lasted about a year. The third issue may have supexseded these or may be a separate entity. They use a similar label design on a red background the earlier issue used black and credit manufacture to the Cova Recording Corporation.

These were last issued in early , and the pressing facility later used for the first Crown records see above. The first use was on a line of reexuis prcs. The same firm pressed Apollo, Emerald and Hits records and possibly others? The author has not seen any of these and matrix source and other details are not known. Interestingly, one source states the design of the early Rialto label was revived on Dandy Records in ! The second lal cl under this name was pressed by Autograph for the Rialto Music Store of Chicago in Only one issue is known, but that features jazz notable Jelly Roll Morton on one side.

This label was pressed for an arts and crafts society sponsored by author Elbert Hubbard. The records seem to have been issued in two groups, and feature choral singing. Very bttle is known about this labeL which issued a dozen or so records, probably in It may have been related to Black historical figure Marcus Garvey, judging from one known issue, and was probably marketed to Black buyers. The label nam e suggests the initials of an u nkn own party, group or company. This is another label about which little is known. It appeared for a short time in mid- , pressing both popular and German material from an unkown source.

This was one of the few Calfomia-based record companies, and apparently did their own recording and pressing. They first appeareed in One source suggests they were sold as a house label by the S. H- Kress Company, who started selling Romeo sec Cameo records when they appeared in , the point when Sunset seems to end. Both are quite rare and no details are known concerning either.

There may be some connection, as the labels use the same design but differ in colour. This label was pressed by Olympic for a Los Angeles phonograph manufacturer. It is not known if it dates from or was preyed later using sides. The author owns a single example of this labeL which the titles date to late The source is unknown, but the record is notable for consisting of two plastic surfaces laminated to a thick core of soft paper materiaL Its scarcity suggests a short life.

While the majority of such issues bore labels, often with handwritten credits, naming the onnpany and identifying the pressing as a private, personal or special record, some such customers also wanted their own labels - they might be music stmes, bands or artists, or large firms wishing promotional or commemorative items. ID The recwd, or one side of it, carries a catalog number in the regular sequence, or a catalog number in a sequence used for special recordings.

Some such recordings appear on a particular label used by the issuing company for such recordings; the Rodeheaver firm. Of course, clients might often have their own label name and design used as weU. As well, many such items carried blank labels, or simple labels giving only the most necessary information. Other firms, such as Victor, used either a variant of the usual label L e.

An address may be found at the end of the preface at the front of the book. See MacGregor, who used this identity on some special pressings probably c, ARROW Although in a series, these do not re- late to the Empire group, as assumed ear- ber. All known issues arc from the spring of Matrix numbers are in a series but the source is not known. Those for which dates have been established are kisted below. Some series issues were renum- bered in other scries.

They are probably from c. The following scries has been dated: There were other se- ries used for non-popu- lar material drawn from Olympic c. It is not known if this was one series and if all numbers were used. All series known from September or October Also used on scmie singB and many do not Gem issues used the This short-lived verd- tone q.

They ccm- c. Not known if these unknown at diis time. No other data known. Other series are known , 40 XK bat no data is available at this time. E Alk issues use La Belle liibp. Known matrix series are listed below. Others have been seen. The name was also used on a client label pressed by Olympic q. All issues on this Chi- cago basexl label date from early , poss- ibly April of that vear.

It may relate to the Chicago department store of a simil. See NYRL for matrices used. This was the name given Emerson 7-inch records after ; it is listed here due to space considerations. See the Emerson listing for matrices and his- torical information. Y digit catalog numbei-s.

The matrix series is unknown. The label is extremely rare and the author has not seen example. When the label was n-vived, most or all of the odd.