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- “So, Like, What Do You Mean By Hook Up?”: All About Hookup Culture in College
- "So, Like, What Do You Mean By Hook Up?": All About Hookup Culture in College | Let's win college.
We focused on females because of their greater risk for negative consequences of hookups, but future research should sample males; ethnic minority students; and gay, lesbian, and bisexual students. Members of fraternities and sororities may be of particular interest because they tend to have more sexual partners and to have sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs more often than independent non-fraternity- or sorority-affiliated students cf.
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A second limitation of the study is its atheoretical nature. We developed our research questions after a review of the empirical literature on hooking up; we attempted to fill in gaps in the knowledge base and resolve inconsistencies or debatable points.
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- Prevalence and Characteristics of Sexual Hookups Among First-Semester Female College Students.
- Prevalence and Characteristics of Sexual Hookups Among First-Semester Female College Students.
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Future research, guided by psychosocial theory, can extend the results of this empirical investigation. Third, the prevalence estimates we obtained reflect the assessment methods we used. The ambiguity inherent in the term hookup makes it difficult to assess its prevalence. However, the methods we employed enabled a more accurate measurement of hookup prevalence relative to prior studies. Moreover, in our assessment of hookup characteristics, we asked participants to self-label hookups so we did not limit our study to only those situations that we understood to be hookups.
Fourth, the study design does not permit causal inferences or exploration of the health consequences of hooking up. Longitudinal research might examine physical and mental health consequences of hooking up cf. Moreover, the prevalence of hooking up suggests that it confers benefits to young people so research could examine whether positive outcomes accrue from this behavior e.
These results suggest that a majority of female students engage in sexual hookups during high school and their first semester of college. Thus, recent reports describing a new hookup culture among students may be accurate.
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This study increases understanding of the hookup experience with regard to partner types, alcohol use, sexual behaviors, condom use, and emotional reactions. The defining characteristic of a hookup seems to be the lack of mutually understood romantic commitment rather than a particular relationship or pattern of interaction. Less clear, and worthy of research, are the implications of hookups for health. Research exploring these outcomes is needed before we can draw conclusions about the effects of this increasingly prevalent sexual behavior pattern.
The authors would like to thank Hillary L. Bishop for her help with data collection and data entry. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Sex Marital Ther. Author manuscript; available in PMC Jan 1. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Center for Health and Behavior, Syracuse University. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Prevalence Confidence in prior estimates of the prevalence of hookups is undermined by the use of imprecise definitions of hookup partnerships and behaviors.
Procedures All procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board. Survey Materials In the first section of the survey, we requested information about sociodemographic characteristics i. Results Prevalence Table 1 displays the prevalence rates of seven sexual hookup behaviors as well as the mean and median number of hookup partners for three time intervals: Open in a separate window.
Hookup Characteristics Across all participants and both survey occasions, unique hookup events were described the number of hookups exceeds the number of participants because some women reported unique events at T1 and T2. Alcohol and drug use Participants reported consuming an average of 3. Romantic Interactions Across all participants and both survey occasions, unique romantic events were described the number of events exceeds the number of participants because some women reported unique events at T1 and T2.
Alcohol and drug use Participants reported consuming an average of 0. Comparing Hookups and Romantic Interactions Hookups and romantic interactions were compared using data from the 99 participants who reported on both a hookup and a romantic event. Alcohol and drug use Alcohol use was more common prior to hookups than prior to romantic interactions. Sexual behavior Touching breasts, touching genitals outside of clothing, touching genitals underneath clothing, oral sex, and vaginal sex occurred more often during romantic interactions than during hookups. Discussion This study advances knowledge regarding the behavioral epidemiology of hookups by a estimating the prevalence of specific behaviors in the hookup context and b providing more detailed information about the context and behavioral topography of hookups.
Prevalence We assessed specific sexual behaviors in order to obtain precise hookup prevalence rates. Hookup Characteristics Participants provided ample details regarding their experience before, during, and after hookups, and several key findings emerged. Limitations and Future Directions The limitations of this research should be acknowledged.
Footnotes 1 In this initial study, we focus on college women because they appear more vulnerable than men to the possible consequences of hookups such as negative emotional reactions Owen et al. A common problem among college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Negotiating a friends with benefits relationship. Archives of Sexual Behavior. The shift from dating to hooking up in college: What scholars have missed.
Sex, dating, and relationships on campus. New York University Press; What is moderate drinking: Alcohol Research and Health. Oral sex and the transmission of non-viral STIs. Bogle describes the peer culture at universities as the "sexual arena. This peer culture is not only amongst college students, but it may start to develop around the time puberty starts in middle school for both genders around the age of eleven to fourteen years old.
In general, puberty is a time when sexuality and body awareness becomes a main focus for individuals to formulate this aspect of their identity. Once in college, for most students, the parental aspect is diminished leaving a student feeling a high degree of freedom to truly explore and expand their whole personal identity, strongly including sexual identity in this "sexual arena. According to Bogle, the campuses her studies were done at had a common trend of college students being strongly interested in every other student's private life.
The viewers of this activity process, interpret, and form assumptions about what was observed. These types of sexual activity or public displays of affection could be as meaningless as two individuals romantically speaking to each other in a high capacity location on campus or could be as extreme as two individuals walking into a bedroom together at a party. This peer culture has evolved and escalated with access to rapid communication such as texting on cell phones and multiple social media applications.
Most these social media applications are identity profiles, public thought disposals, and virtual photo albums of oneself, where other's are just a click away from cyber analysis of how that individual displays themselves physically, sexually, psychologically, emotionally, and mentally on the internet. Bogle states that the knowing of other's personal lives isn't just a purpose to gossip, but a way to observe, analyze, and be impacted by other's sexual actions, solely for the purpose of their own actions. Some studies have made a connection between hookup culture and substance use.
About a third of the students who reported engaging in vaginal, anal, or oral sex during a hookup reported being very intoxicated and another third reported being mildly intoxicated. Studies suggest that the degree of alcoholic intoxication directly correlates with the level of risky behavior. Studies have generally shown that greater alcohol use is associated with more sexual activity in the course of a hookup.
At the other end of the spectrum, the greatest alcohol consumption was associated with penetrative sex, and less alcohol consumption with non-penatrative hookups. Hookup culture on college campuses is intertwined with a broader society. On the other hand, some sociologists have argued that hookup culture is a characteristic of the American college environment and does not reflect broader American youth culture, just as many college graduates stop engaging in hookups when they leave college preferring instead dating or other sexual arrangements.
But evidence exists that young women are propelling it too. Hookup culture also exists outside of the college environment. Location-based geosocial networking smartphone applications, a. Life course studies indicate that as people grow older and as they subjectively identify as adult, they are less likely to engage in casual sexual behavior. The American Academy of Pediatrics has argued that media representations of sexuality may influence teen sexual behavior,  and this view is supported by a number of studies.
Cable television is filled with reality shows that depict an image of partying and glorified hookups, one of the most well known shows being MTV's Jersey Shore. As the cost of personal computers dropped and online access has increased, Heldman and Wade, along with others, argue that internet pornography has "emerged as a primary influence on young people's, especially men's, attitudes towards sex and their own sexuality.
There are many ideas as to why people think young adults are involved in this hook up culture, such as that they feel like they have to do it to fit in. However, many boys and girls did report that they do hook up with random people in order to find someone they could possibly start something serious with. There have also been a number of studies that have studied the mental aspects of casual hookups.
“So, Like, What Do You Mean By Hook Up?”: All About Hookup Culture in College
In a study done by psychologist Seth Schwartz has shown results that say that people who had many random hook ups had more psychological issues. They then came up with results that showed that penetrative sex hook ups made people with greater feelings of depression and loneliness have a decrease in those symptoms and feelings. For example, a study by Reiber and Garcia in show that a lot of people that engage in sexual hook ups feel uncomfortable. Random hook ups also have shown to cause feelings of pressure and performance anxiety in a study by Paul, et al. In this research it was demonstrated that the number of sex partners people have nowadays has barely any difference to the number of partners people had twenty to thirty years ago.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Media and American adolescent sexuality. The Myths and Realities of the Hookup Experience". What does it mean? Hookups have replaced casual sex and even dating on many college campuses over the years, but as is so often the case when sex is discussed, it's not altogether clear what everybody is talking about when they say "hookup.
Researchers at the University of Montana found so many different definitions among the students they studied that they had to come up with a precise definition to be sure everybody was talking about the same thing. Among the children, hooking up was always a sexual experience, but the nature and extent of what they did could vary widely.
Review of General Psychology. There's an awful lot wrong with moral panic stories about "hookup culture" on campus [ Examining differences in geosocial networking app use and sexual risk behavior of emerging adults. And so I do think that anyone of any age, whether they went to college or not, is going to be able to recognize many of those dynamics in their own lives.
And I think that that is absolutely a dynamic that is coloring the interactions of so many people in America, both people who are dating and people in relationships. At some point, we ought to talk about the connection between hookup culture and sexual assault. What is that connection? Hookup culture both camouflages sexual assault and catalyzes it. It camouflages it by making the behavior that sexual predators use to gain access to their peers in a criminal way look normal. Having sexual contact with someone who is extremely drunk, pulling them into a dark, private part of the house, and being alone with them is seen as perfectly normal in hookup culture.
And if someone is set on exploiting their peers, they can use that.
"So, Like, What Do You Mean By Hook Up?": All About Hookup Culture in College | Let's win college.
What advice would you give them? The first piece of advice I would give is that it might seem like everyone is doing it, and everyone is enjoying it. Can you unpack that a bit? And, on the college campuses in hookup culture, that includes letting loose of all of your inhibitions about sexuality, and all of your internalized repression. And that is a lot; there is a very strong argument there not just for the opportunity to be casually sexual, but the imperative to do so, as a truly modern, liberated person. I wish I was like them. Do colleges -- the official institutions, themselves -- participate in, or endorse, or are they complicit in, this culture in any way?
Colleges at first, in the colonial era in America, were very staid, very stodgy. And they were mostly about helping middle-class men become ministers. And they were also very religious. And then that got democratized. But we had already decided that colleges were a space for young people to go wild starting around the s.