We present a model of intergroup relations focused on the role of the in-group-favoring norm as capable of facilitating positive intergroup relations.
We begin by defining the in-group-favoring norm and describing how it affects self-evaluations and evaluations of out-group members. We then outline how positive intergroup relations may result via the implementation of specific techniques fundamental to the in-group-favoring norm, including emphasizing the value of interactions with the out-group, establishing cooperative intergroup norms, and establishing superordinate goals. In so doing, we discuss how classic moderators of intergroup relations, including leadership, guilt, and in-group norms are facilitators of positive intergroup relations once in-group interests are considered.
A Cook's Tour Abroad: A Cook's Tour Abroad. This mixed-methods, longitudinal study documents the short- and long-term impact of a cook's tour of Vietnam by 14 U. Over 3 weeks, travelers engaged in myriad intergroup interactions to experience Vietnam's cuisine and culture, exemplifying a positive intergroup orientation consistent with allophilia and xenophilia. Measures included a pretrip questionnaire, daily journal, and posttrip questionnaire, as well as participant observation.
Short-term attitude change included significant increases in positive affect toward the Vietnamese, negative stereotypes, and intergroup understanding. Nearly 10 years later, the author interviewed 10 of the original trip participants. Consistent with allophilia theory, participants expressed continued affection, kinship, and enthusiasm toward the Vietnamese people and remained motivated to engage the Vietnamese culture and cuisine. Additional evidence of allophilic specificity, openness to experience, and deprovincialism is also discussed.
Positive Behavior Across Group Boundaries. Negative intergroup processes such as prejudice and conflict have been a traditional focus of social psychological research, while work that explicitly focuses on the determinants of positive intergroup processes is still in its infancy.
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Reflecting these relatively recent developments in the social and behavioral sciences, this volume's contributions represent current directions in psychological theorizing and research on positive and proactive behavior across group boundaries. One intriguing feature of positive cross-group behaviors is that they can be conceived, at one and the same time, as individual, interpersonal, and collective phenomena. Accordingly, this volume is organized into three sections that represent these different levels of analysis. This multilevel approach represents a distinctive perspective that extends contemporary work on positive intergroup behavior.
At a more general level, then, one important future outcome of this work could be a more nuanced picture of human social behavior in the context of groups. The H factor of personality: Why some people are manipulative, self-entitled, materialistic, and exploitive and why it matters for everyone. People who have high levels of H are sincere and modest; people who have low levels are deceitful and pretentious. But scientific evidence shows that traits of honesty and humility form a unified group of personality traits, separate from those of the other five groups identified several decades ago.
Sixty years of research on intergroup contact demonstrates that positive interactions across group boundaries can improve intergroup attitudes and can contribute to forging tolerant, integrated, multicultural societies. However, to fully realize the benefits of growing diversity around the globe, individuals need to exploit opportunities for intergroup contact that are available to them. In this article, we begin to address these research gaps. We discuss the self-expansion model and present new evidence that is consistent with this model. Two studies, one correlational in a cross-cultural setting and the other experimental, show the value of high self-expansion expectancies and motivation in promoting interest in and producing more and higher quality interactions across group boundaries.
We discuss implications of these findings for policy and intervention. Friendship Development and Intergroup Attitudes: Friendship Development and Intergroup Attitudes.
Although there is a growing body of work concerning cross-group friendship and intergroup attitudes, this work typically focuses on a limited number of interpersonal processes among established friendships. In addition, little is known about the role of group-related processes within such friendships.
Xenophilia - Wikipedia
Two studies were conducted to address this gap. Results from a retrospective online survey and a longitudinal study reveal that both interpersonal friendship processes e. Specifically, the current findings suggest that interpersonal friendship processes are vital to fostering positive attitudes for the outgroup early in the relationship, but that intergroup friendship processes become more strongly linked to attitudes once the relationship progresses.
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Polyculturalism Predicts Intergroup Contact. However, not all students take advantage of these opportunities, making it important to understand what factors contribute to intergroup contact and friendship.
In the current longitudinal investigation with undergraduates at a diverse, mid-sized, public university in the Northeastern U. We found that greater endorsement of polyculturalism before the start of college prospectively predicted increases in intergroup contact and friendship from spring of first year to fall of second year, controlling for endorsement of multiculturalism, colorblindness, and egalitarianism before the start of college. Findings suggest polyculturalism deserves further attention in research and might be useful for interventions, programs, and policies aimed at fostering positive intergroup interactions.
The structure of phenotypic personality traits. This personal historical article traces the development of the Big-Five factor structure, whose growing acceptance by personality researchers has profoundly influenced the scientific study of individual differences. The roots of this taxonomy lie in the lexical hypothesis and the insights of Sir Francis Galton, the prescience of L. Thurstone, the legacy of Raymond B.
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I'm really interested in other religions and think of myself as a xenophile , which means I love things and people who are different than myself. Muslim revivalists' patriotism--a sentiment rather than an ideology--expressed a more open, inclusive and xenophile attachment to the nation. Islam in and out: Wildlife consist of; xenophile fowl, fishes, amphibian and reptilian.