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Abdus Salam and Dr. Ishrat Hussain Usmani also sent a large number of scientists to pursue doctorate degrees in the field of nuclear technology and nuclear reactor technology. The next landmark under Dr. Abdus Salam began lobbying for commercial nuclear power plants, and tirelessly advocated for nuclear power in Pakistan. Its project director was Parvez Butt , a nuclear engineer, and its construction completed in Currently, Pakistan Government is planning to build another MWe commercial nuclear power plant.

However, the work is put on hold since If India builds the bomb, we will eat grass and leaves for a thousand years, even go hungry, but we will get one of our own. The Christians have the bomb, the Jews have the bomb and now the Hindus have the bomb. Why not the Muslims too have the bomb? At this meeting Munir Khan concluded: Munir Khan pointed out to the President that Pakistan must acquire the necessary facilities that would give the country a nuclear weapon capability, which were available free of safeguards and at an affordable cost, and there were no restrictions on nuclear technology, that it was freely available, and that India was moving forward in deploying it, as Munir Khan maintained.

After hearing the proposal President Ayub Khan swiftly denied the proposal, saying that Pakistan was too poor to spend that much money and that, if Pakistan ever needed the atomic bomb, it could somehow acquire it off the shelf. Pakistan's weaker conventional weapon military in comparison to India and the Indian nuclear programme that started in prompted Pakistan's clandestine development of nuclear weapons.

Ahsan Mubarak , [29] who were sent to Sellafield to receive technical training. Both these reactors are of MW capacity and are being built at Chashma city of Punjab province. There, Bhutto vowed never to allow a repeat. At the Multan meeting on 20 January , Bhutto stated, "What Raziuddin Siddiqui , a Pakistani, contributed for the United States during the Manhattan Project , could also be done by scientists in Pakistan, for their own people.

In December , Dr. Tedious mathematical work on fast neutron calculations , relativity , complex hydrodynamics and quantum mechanics were conducted by the TPG led by Salam until when he left Pakistan in protest, though he kept close contact with TPG. Raziuddin Siddiqui and Asghar Qadir. Under Khan's supervision, the Kahuta Research Laboratories KRL was set-up and engaged in clandestine efforts to obtain the necessary materials technology and electronic components for its developing uranium enrichment capabilities. The TPG succeeded in the earlier implosion-type weapon design in —78, with the first cold test conducted in by Ishfaq Ahmad.

In , Khan was convicted in absentia by the Court of Amsterdam for stealing centrifuge blueprints, though the conviction was overturned on a legal technicality. This is also called a cold test, and was codenamed Kirana-I. There were 24 more cold tests from — Zaman Sheikh a chemical engineer and Hafeez Qureshi , a mechanical engineer.

Ishrat Hussain Usmani 's contribution to the nuclear energy programme is also fundamental to the development of atomic energy for civilian purposes as he, with efforts led by Salam, established PINSTECH, that subsequently developed into Pakistan's premier nuclear research institution. Pakistan acceded to the Geneva Protocol on 15 April As for its Biological warfare capability, Pakistan is not widely suspected of either producing biological weapons or having an offensive biological programme. During the various BTWC Review Conferences, Pakistan's representatives have urged more robust participation from state signatories, invited new states to join the treaty, and, as part of the non-aligned group of countries, have made the case for guarantees for states' rights to engage in peaceful exchanges of biological and toxin materials for purposes of scientific research.

Pakistan is not known to have an offensive chemical weapons programme, and in Pakistan signed and ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention CWC , and has committed itself to refrain from developing, manufacturing, stockpiling, or using chemical weapons. This initiative was taken a year after both countries had publicly tested nuclear weapons.

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Since the early s, Pakistan's nuclear proliferation activities have not been without controversy. However, since the arrest of Abdul Qadeer Khan, the government has taken concrete steps to ensure that Nuclear proliferation is not repeated and have assured the IAEA about the transparency of Pakistan's upcoming Chashma Nuclear Power Plant. In November , The International Atomic Energy Agency Board of Governors approved an agreement with the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission to apply safeguards to new nuclear power plants to be built in the country with Chinese assistance.

In May , during the anniversary of Pakistan's first nuclear weapons test, former Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif claimed that Pakistan's nuclear security is the strongest in the world. Abdul Qadeer Khan , Pakistan's nuclear safety program and nuclear security program is the strongest program in the world and there is no such capability in any other country for radical elements to steal or possess nuclear weapons. A Washington-based science think tank has reported that Pakistan is increasing its capacity to produce plutonium at its Khushab nuclear facility. Chagai-II on 30 May , at Kharan was quite a successful test of a sophisticated, compact, but "powerful plutonium bomb" designed to be carried by aircraft, vessels, and missiles.

These are believed to be tritium -boosted weapons. In an opinion published in The Hindu , former Indian Foreign Secretary Shyam Saran wrote that Pakistan's expanding nuclear capability is "no longer driven solely by its oft-cited fears of India" but by the " paranoia about US attacks on its strategic assets. As of , Pakistan has been reportedly developing smaller, tactical nuclear weapons for use on the battlefield. This is consistent with earlier statements from a meeting of the National Command Authority which directs nuclear policy and development saying Pakistan is developing "a full-spectrum deterrence capability to deter all forms of aggression.

Pakistan has over the years proposed a number of bilateral or regional non-proliferation steps and confidence building measures to India, including: India rejected all six proposals. However, India and Pakistan reached three bilateral agreements on nuclear issues. In , they agreed not to attack each other's nuclear facilities.

These were deemed essential risk reduction measures in view of the seemingly unending state of misgiving and tension between the two countries, and the extremely short response time available to them to any perceived attack. None of these agreements limits the nuclear weapons programs of either country in any way. Pakistan has blocked negotiation of a Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty as it continues to produce fissile material for weapons.

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In a recent statement at the Conference on Disarmament , Pakistan laid out its nuclear disarmament policy and what it sees as the proper goals and requirements for meaningful negotiations:. Pakistan has repeatedly stressed at international fora like the Conference on Disarmament that it will give up its nuclear weapons only when other nuclear armed states do so, and when disarmament is universal and verifiable. It rejects any unilateral disarmament on its part. Khalil Qureshi , did most of the calculations as a member of the uranium division at PAEC, which undertook research on several methods of enrichment, including gaseous diffusion , jet nozzle and molecular laser isotope separation techniques, as well as centrifuges.

Khan as its senior scientist. Electronic materials were imported from the United Kingdom by two liaison officers posted to the High Commission of Pakistan in London and Bonn Germany. In contrast PAEC was unable to enrich any Uranium or produce weapons grade fissile material until The uranium program proved to be a difficult, challenging and most enduring approach to scale up to industrial levels to military-grade. Khan, was quoted in the book Eating Grass that " hydrodynamical problem in centrifuge was simply stated, but extremely difficult to evaluate, not only in order of magnitude but in detailing also.

Khan] is simply wasting time. Khan having difficulty getting his peers to listen to him, he aggressively continued his research and the program was made feasible in the shortest time possible. As for Pakistan's plutonium capability, it has always been there [ where? However, there were only two logistic problems faced by PAEC. The second one was allocation of resources.

Alternatively, it is hard to believe that Pakistan had the engineering capability to produce plutonium for nuclear bombs in the early 70s, when it couldn't even complete the less difficult step of subcritical, cold testing until in Kirana Hills. Khan if Pakistan had the capability to produce fissile plutonium in the early 70s. Pakistan had to bring Dr. Khan from Europe to develop fissile uranium after PAEC failed to produce fissile plutonium by the deadline.

As opposed to uranium, the parallel plutonium programme is indigenous, locally developed and culminated under the scientific directorship of PAEC chairman Munir Ahmad Khan.


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G D Allam , a theoretical physicist. Towards the end of the s, the PAEC began to pursue plutonium production capabilities. Consequently, Pakistan built the 40—50 MW megawatt, thermal Khushab Reactor Complex at Joharabad, and in April , Pakistan announced that the nuclear reactor was operational. The Khushab reactor project was initiated in by Munir Khan, who informed the world that the reactor was totally indigenous, i. Cirincione of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace , Khushab's Plutonium production capacity has allowed Pakistan to develop lighter nuclear warheads that would be easier to deliver to any place in the range of the ballistic missiles.

In late , the Institute for Science and International Security released intelligence reports and imagery showing the construction of a new plutonium reactor at the Khushab nuclear site. The reactor is deemed to be large enough to produce enough plutonium to facilitate the creation of as many as "40 to 50 nuclear weapons a year. On 30 May , Pakistan proved its plutonium capability in a scientific experiment and sixth nuclear test: Estimates of Pakistan's stockpile of nuclear warheads vary. The most recent analysis, published in the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists in , estimates that Pakistan has 70—90 nuclear warheads.

By contrast, in , US military and intelligence sources estimated that Pakistan's nuclear arsenal may be as large as warheads. The actual size of Pakistan's nuclear stockpile is hard for experts to gauge owing to the extreme secrecy which surrounds the program in Pakistan. And the uranium, like plutonium, is only usable in the core of a bomb in metallic form. Additionally, a few grams of tritium a by-product of plutonium production reactors and thermonuclear fuel can increase the overall yield of the bombs by a factor of three to four.

Ultra-centrifugation for obtaining U cannot be done simply by putting natural uranium through the centrifuges. It requires the complete mastery over the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle, beginning at uranium mining and refining, production of uranium ore or yellow cake, conversion of ore into uranium dioxide UO 2 which is used to make nuclear fuel for natural uranium reactors like Khushab and KANUPP , conversion of UO 2 into uranium tetrafluoride UF 4 and then into the feedstock for enrichment UF 6.

The complete mastery of fluorine chemistry and production of highly toxic and corrosive hydrofluoric acid and other fluorine compounds is required. The UF 6 is pumped into the centrifuges for enrichment. The process is then repeated in reverse until UF 4 is produced, leading to the production of uranium metal, the form in which U is used in a bomb.

It is estimated that there are approximately 10,—20, centrifuges in Kahuta. Pakistan's first nuclear tests were made in May , when six warheads were tested under codename Chagai-I and Chagai-II. The low-yield weapons are probably in nuclear bombs carried on fighter-bombers such as the Dassault Mirage III and fitted to Pakistan's short-range ballistic missiles, while the higher-yield warheads are probably fitted to the Shaheen series and Ghauri series ballistic missiles.

According to a US congressional report, Pakistan has addressed issues of survivability in a possible nuclear conflict through second strike capability. Pakistan has been dealing with efforts to develop new weapons and at the same time, have a strategy for surviving a nuclear war. Pakistan has built hard and deeply buried storage and launch facilities to retain a second strike capability in a nuclear war.

It was confirmed that Pakistan has built Soviet-style road-mobile missiles, state-of-the-art air defences around strategic sites, and other concealment measures. In , Pakistan had 'at least six secret locations' and since then it is believed Pakistan may have many more such secret sites. In , the United States admitted that it did not know where all of Pakistan's nuclear sites are located. Pakistani defence officials have continued to rebuff and deflect American requests for more details about the location and security of the country's nuclear sites.

In , Russian foreign ministry official Yuriy Korolev stated that there are somewhere between , and , people directly involved in Pakistan's nuclear and missile programs, a figure considered extremely large for a developing country. Historically, the People's Republic of China PRC has been repeatedly charged with allegedly transferring missile and related materials to Pakistan. The former US officials have also disclosed that China had allegedly transferred technology to Pakistan and conducting putative test for it in Pakistan is a friendly country with whom we have good economic and political relations.

In , it was reported that both countries have signed a mutual treaty of peaceful use of civil nuclear technology agreement in which China would supply Pakistan a civil-purpose nuclear power plant. However, after the Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto was dismissed in August , the French nuclear power plant deal went into cold storage and the agreement could not be implemented due to financial constraints and the Pakistani government's apathy.

Yakunin, said that the Soviet regime was considering a request from Pakistan for the supply of a nuclear power plant. The Soviet and French civilian nuclear power plant was on its way during the s. According to more recent reports, it has been alleged that North Korea had been secretly supplying Pakistan with ballistic missile technology in exchange for nuclear weapons technology.

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Pakistan refuses to adopt a " no-first-use " doctrine, indicating that it would strike India with nuclear weapons even if India did not use such weapons first. Pakistan's asymmetric nuclear posture has significant influence on India's decision and ability to retaliate, as shown in and crises , when non-state actors carried out deadly attacks on Indian soil, only to be met with a relatively subdued response from India.

A military spokesperson stated that "Pakistan's threat of nuclear first-use deterred India from seriously considering conventional military strikes. The two countries share an mile border and have suffered a violent history—four wars in less than seven decades. The past three decades have seen India's economy eclipse that of Pakistan's, allowing the former to outpace the latter in defence expenditure at a decreasing share of GDP. In comparison to population, "India is more powerful than Pakistan by almost every metric of military, economic, and political power—and the gap continues to grow," a Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs report claims.

The theory of "N-deterrence" has been frequently being interpreted by the various government-in-time of effect of Pakistan. Although the nuclear deterrence theory was officially adopted in as part of Pakistan's defence theory, [] on the other hand, the theory has had been interpreted by the government since in The relative weakness in defence warfare is highlighted in Pakistan's nuclear posture, which Pakistan considers its primary deterrent from Indian conventional offensives or nuclear attack.

There are geographic gaps and corridors similar to those that existed in Europe With its relatively smaller conventional force, and lacking adequate technical means, especially in early warning and surveillance, Pakistan relies on a more proactive nuclear defensive policy. Indian political scientist Vipin Narang, however, argues that Pakistan's asymmetric escalation posture, or the rapid first use of nuclear weapons against conventional attacks to deter their outbreak, increases instability in South Asia.

Narang supports his arguments by noting to the fact that since India's assured retaliation nuclear posture has not deterred these provocations, Pakistan's passive nuclear posture has neutralised India's conventional options for now; limited retaliation would be militarily futile, and more significant conventional retaliation is simply off the table. The strategists in Pakistan Armed Forces has ceded nuclear assets and a degree of nuclear launch code authority to lower-level officers to ensure weapon usability in a " fog of war " scenario, making credible its deterrence doctrine.

Pakistan's motive for pursuing a nuclear weapons development program is never to allow another invasion of Pakistan. According to the United States Department of Defense report cited above, "Pakistan remains steadfast in its refusal to sign the NPT, stating that it would do so only after India joined the Treaty. Pakistani officials have stated that signature of the CTBT is in Pakistan's best interest, but that Pakistan will do so only after developing a domestic consensus on the issue, and have disavowed any connection with India's decision.

The Congressional Research Service , in a report published on 23 July , said that in addition to expanding its nuclear arsenal, Pakistan could broaden the circumstances under which it would be willing to use nuclear weapons. The government institutional organisation authorised to make critical decisions about Pakistan's nuclear posturing is the Pakistan National Command Authority NCA , the genesis of which was in the s and has been constitutionally established since February In , Pakistan further consolidated its nuclear weapons infrastructure by placing the Khan Research Laboratories and the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission under the control of one Nuclear Defense Complex.

The committee includes key senior cabinet ministers as well as the respective military chiefs of staff. The chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee is the deputy chairman of the Development Control Committee DCC , the body responsible for weapons development and oversight which includes the nation's military and scientific, but not its political, leadership. Under the Nuclear Command Authority, its secretariat, Strategic Plans Division SPD , is responsible for the physical protection and to ensure security of all aspects of country's nuclear arsenals and maintains dedicated force for this purpose.

From the end of the United States has provided material assistance to aid Pakistan in guarding its nuclear material, warheads and laboratories. Specifically the United States has provided helicopters, night-vision goggles and nuclear detection equipment. During this period Pakistan also began to develop a modern export control regulatory regime with US assistance. It supplements the US National Nuclear Security Administration Megaports program at Port Qasim , Karachi , which deployed radiation monitors and imaging equipment monitored by a Pakistani central alarm station.

Pakistan turned down the offer of Permissive Action Link PAL technology, a sophisticated "weapon release" program which initiates use via specific checks and balances, possibly because it feared the secret implanting of "dead switches". But Pakistan is since believed to have developed and implemented its own version of PAL and US military officials have stated they believe Pakistan's nuclear arsenals to be well secured.

Since the US government has reportedly been concerned about the safety of Pakistani nuclear facilities and weapons. Press reports have suggested that the United States has contingency plans to send in special forces to help "secure the Pakistani nuclear arsenal". Diplomatic reports published in the United States diplomatic cables leak revealed US and British worries over a potential threat posed by Islamists.

Patterson said "Our major concern is not having an Islamic militant steal an entire weapon but rather the chance someone working in [Pakistani government] facilities could gradually smuggle enough material out to eventually make a weapon. A report published by The Times in early states that the United States is training an elite unit to recover Pakistani nuclear weapons or materials should they be seized by militants, possibly from within the Pakistani nuclear security organisation.

This was done in the context of growing Anti-Americanism in the Pakistani Armed Forces , multiple attacks on sensitive installations over the previous 2 years and rising tensions. According to former US intelligence official Rolf Mowatt-Larssen, US concerns are justified because militants have struck at several Pakistani military facilities and bases since According to this report, the United States does not know the locations of all Pakistani nuclear sites and has been denied access to most of them.

Gates denied that the United States had plans to take over Pakistan's nuclear weapons. A study by Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard University titled 'Securing the Bomb ', found that Pakistan's stockpile "faces a greater threat from Islamic extremists seeking nuclear weapons than any other nuclear stockpile on earth". The region has more violent extremists than any other, the country is unstable, and its arsenal of nuclear weapons is expanding. Nuclear weapons expert David Albright author of 'Peddling Peril' has also expressed concerns that Pakistan's stockpile may not be secure despite assurances by both the Pakistani and US governments.

He stated Pakistan "has had many leaks from its program of classified information and sensitive nuclear equipment, and so you have to worry that it could be acquired in Pakistan," []. Proliferation and Security Issues' noted that even though Pakistan had taken several steps to enhance Nuclear security in recent years 'Instability in Pakistan has called the extent and durability of these reforms into question. In response to a November article in The Atlantic written by Jeffrey Goldberg highlighting concerns about the safety of Pakistan's nuclear weapons program, the Pakistani Government announced that it would train an additional 8, people to protect the country's nuclear arsenal.

At the same time, the Pakistani Government also denounced the article. Training will be completed no later than Pakistan consistently maintains that it has tightened the security over the several years. We have put in place a very robust regime that includes " multilayered mechanisms" and processes to secure our strategic assets, and have provided maximum transparency on our practices. We have reassured the international community on this issue over and over again and our track record since the time our atomic bomb programme was made overt has been unblemished".

On 7 September , the US Department of State said "Pakistan has a professional and dedicated security force that fully understands the importance of nuclear security. In April , Pakistan launched a Hatf-4 Shaheen-1A, said to be capable of carrying a nuclear warhead designed to evade missile-defense systems. According to Jeffrey Lewis, director of the East Asia Non-proliferation Program at the Monterey Institute of International Studies, citing a Pakistani news article, [] Pakistan is developing its own equivalent to the Davy Crockett launcher with miniaturised warhead that may be similar to the W The Pakistan Air Force PAF is believed to have practised " toss-bombing " in the s and s, a method of launching weapons from fighter-bombers which can also be used to deliver nuclear warheads.

The PAF also operates a fleet of F fighters, of which 18 were delivered in and confirmed by General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani , are capable of carrying nuclear weapons. With a third squadron being raised, this would bring the total number of dedicated nuclear capable aircraft to a total of But the United States made its case.

The report also stated that Pakistan is obliged under the terms of its contract to ask the US for permission before the fighters are converted. To date, the US has given only two countries Pakistan and Israel implicit permission to modify their Fs to carry nuclear warheads. The Pakistan Navy was first publicly reported to be considering deployment of nuclear weapons on submarines in February Later in it was stated by Admiral Shahid Karimullah , then Chief of Naval Staff , that there were no plans for deploying nuclear weapons on submarines but if " forced to " they would be.

In , Pakistan Navy established the Naval Strategic Forces Command and made it responsible for countering and battling naval-based weapons of mass destruction.

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It is believed by most experts that Pakistan is developing a sea-based variant of the Hatf VII Babur , which is a nuclear-capable ground-launched cruise missile. In response to INS Arihant , India's first nuclear submarine , the Pakistan Navy pushed forward a proposal to build its own nuclear submarine as a direct response to the Indian nuclear submarine program. However, the Navy stressed that "the project completion and trials would take anywhere from between 5 to 8 years to build the nuclear submarine after which Pakistan would join the list of countries that has a nuclear submarine.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Some of this section's listed sources may not be reliable. Please help this article by looking for better, more reliable sources. Unreliable citations may be challenged or deleted. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Nuclear energy in Pakistan.

Bangladesh liberation war , Indo-Pakistani War of , and Project Minimum Credible Deterrence Pakistan. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Nuclear doctrine of Pakistan. N-deterrence and Nuclear deterrence. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Military of Pakistan portal. Archived from the original on 27 April Retrieved 5 May Archived from the original on 15 October Retrieved 23 December Jang Media Group, Co. Archived from the original on 5 May Retrieved 30 May Archived from the original on 23 October Retrieved 21 August Archived from the original on 1 January Retrieved 12 January Even under very controlled conditions, precise yields can be very hard to determine, and for less controlled conditions the margins of error can be quite large.

There are number of different ways that the yields can be determined, including calculations based on blast size, blast brightness, seismographic data, and the strength of the shock wave. The explosion measured 5. Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 26 April Archived from the original on 25 July Pakistani Nuclear Program 2—5". Archived from the original on 8 July Archived from the original on 12 April Latest News Breaking, Pakistan News". Archived from the original on 10 August